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Brentwood Plastics Blog

Polyethylene film pricing

Posted by sam Longstreth on Mon, Jan 25, 2016 @ 05:23 PM

This bold type entry is January 25, 2016.  The plain type is from October 24, 2011.  There's a deja vu all over / plus ca change sense about PE pricing.  CDI just came out with 3 cents down with "(e)" after it which means estimated.  This didn't surprize us; it just confirmed the rumors of recent wheeling and dealing in Houston on large volumes.


A billion pounds of gulf coast grass roots capacity here, a billion there, eventually it adds up.  It's like back in the 70's when we wondered if they were going to pave the interstates with polyethylene.  Export is slowing because resin made from cheap oil costs less than plastic made from cheap natural gas.

The good news is an increase is off the radar.  The bad news for anybody who buys resin is classic deflationary behavior - it's rational to postpone purchases when prices are dropping.  You have to hope you can turn your inventory as fast as your competition.

Here we go again.  Polyethylene resin pricing is dropping.  That's the good news.  The bad news is nobody knows how much it has dropped.  How can that be?  Either the price dropped by $0.03 per pound or it didn't.  It should be self evident.  But it is not.  

There is a company called CDI that issues a fiat every month that is supposed to have the inside baseball on where polyethylene resin pricing has been, is and will go.  Resin producers, resin users and consumers of plastic products buy this report.  They pay thousands of dollars for these words of wisdom.  Many consumers tie their contracts with manufacturers to this publication.  If CDI says resin went up the manufacturer gets an increase, if CDI says it went down they have to give a price concession.  Seems like a fair way to handle decreases and increases but what if CDI gets it wrong?

Early in October the major resin producers dropped their prices by $0.03.   Prices have been on the rise and are historically quite high so this was some welcomed relief.  Manufacturers told their customers that they would be getting a $0.03 decrease as soon as their inventories had changed.  Everyone was pleased.  

From what I've been told (I don't subscribe to CDI) CDI's report comes out on Thursday or Friday in the third week of the month.  By Monday everybody in the industry knows what it says.  Last week CDI's report came out saying the price of low density polyethylene had dropped $0.05 in October and was going to be flat in November. Great!  Now the manufacturers have to give away more than they got from the resin producers.  

This has happened before.  A few years ago CDI came out with a report saying that resin had dropped across the board.  What had happened is a few large users got some preferential treatment while us mere mortals got squat.  Over the weekend the major producers got really mad at CDI and CDI said, "Oops. Nobody got a price decrease, it never happened.  Sorrrrry!".

It's Monday and I haven't heard anything about CDI or the majors changing their minds.  Time will tell. 

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Topics: low density polyethylene, polyethylene film, LLDPE, price for polyethylene, polyethylene, LDPE

What Is Polyethylene?

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Wed, Jan 20, 2016 @ 09:19 AM

What is Polyethylene?

Polyethylene is comprised of long chains of the building block ethylene monomer. Ethylene monomer, or C2H4 ( or just "C2" ) looks like this in English:


Ethylene monomer occurs naturally in both natural gas and as a component of naptha - the portion of a barrel of oil which cannot be refined into gasoline or oil.  So now you know that correlations between zillions of barrels of oil and plastic grocery bags are just plain false.

                                      Did you know ?  Climacteric plants produce ethylene to induce ripening.


Polyethylene looks like this:


How these chains are put together determine the wide variety of resin properties. The fancy name for this is molecular weight distribution, or MWD for short.  MWD influences the 2 main properties which dictate a resins's personaliity - density and melt index.  The variations determine what applications a specific resin will work for.  

Polyethylene is the largest volume thermoplastic resin.  As such, it has a wide variety of uses.  Worldwide, there are probably hundreds of grades just for film alone.

Specific gravity, or density expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cc) influences the properties the most. Resins are described by the density ranges as explained in the following table:

Density (gm/cc)NameRecycle SymbolTextureHeat ResistanceExamples
.940 to .965 High density polyethylene HDPE  HDPE (high-density polyethylene) stiff high

Milk crates
Gallon milk
Motor oil bottle
Grocery bags

.928 to .939 Medium density polyethylene MDPE  LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)     Paper towel overwrap
.915 to .928 Low density polyethylene LDPE and linear low density LLDPE  LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)     Bread bags
Trash bags
extrusion coating
.900 to .914 Very Low density polyethylene VLDPE  LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)  soft   Dry cleaner bags
.867 to .899 Ultra Low density polyethylene ULDPE  LDPE (Low-density polyethylene) soft low  

Melt index (MI) measures viscosity by weighing the amount of plastic resin which extrudes from a cylinder with a hole in the bottom at 300 degrees for 10 minutes. The test method is ASTM D1238. The number of grams is the melt index, or MI.

A low melt index ( under 1 ) is referred to as a fractional melt  or less than a gram / 10 minutes.  Lower MI resins are used for pipe and profile extrusion.   It's common sense that resins with high viscosity (resistance to flow) are inherently strong. In film applications, fractional melt is suitable for shipping sacks and shrink film. Generally there is a trade off between melt index and clarity. The higher the melt index, the clearer the resin.  So a fractional melt is not a good choice when clarity is important and a high clarity "whole melt" or resin with a melt index of over 1.0 is not appropriate for shipping sacks.

By contrast, high melt index resins are used for injection molding.  For injection molding, it is desirable to have a material which flows easily to fill the mold cavity.


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Topics: polyethylene

Recycled Content is not Always Practical

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Tue, Dec 01, 2015 @ 06:47 PM

"Recycled Content" must score well in focus groups.  What else could explain why we are getting more requests for recycled content than ever ? 


" ( Post-consumer resins are) very important to some brand owners"   
-  Pedro Morales, KW Plastics


2ndplantbottle.jpg posttotalrecycled.jpgminrecycled.pngrecycsymbols.jpg

Problem:  With very few exeptions, recycled content compromises the properties of the virgin resin.  This has many ramifications.  Taking the exception first, let's look at polyethylene terephthalate a/k/a PETE #1.  It is not melted down and mixed back in with the virgin resin.  Instead, it is RE-POLYMERIZED.  The polymer is broken down into pure monomer and water and reassembled into pure polymer.  PETE is the only recycled resin approved for medical devices. 

" We need ( post-consumer) polyethylene to be looked at like recycled PET is...  Recycled PET  is sold at a premium ( to virgin PET ).  ( Post-consumer) polyethylene needs that same kind of attention." 
- John  Picciuto, president of Western Plastics Association

For this to happen, post-consumer PE ( #2 & #4 ) would have to attain the same FDA-approved status that PETE

Really truly recycled plastic is picked up curbside, sorted, reground, repelletized and extruded again.  Internally generated scrap which is recycled internally does not fit the definition, but nobody cares or checks up.


At every step there is a chance for contamination.  Cross contamination with other polymers is one of the top issues for recyclers.  If the recycler is fortunate enough to have a batch of just one polymer, that's not even half the battle.   There are variations on the theme of each resin.  So contamination from the same polymer can compromise the final product.  With each heat history, the performance of the polymer degrades due to dissipation of the anti-oxidant.  Recycling makes the public feel good.  In reality it is downcycling to a less critical application.

Medical and Clean Room Packaging

Would anyone in their right mind want to use a medical device such as a syringe which might contain even trace amounts of toxins ?   We have made film for ostomy bags ( prolonged direct dermal contact ) for over 15 years. It's tough enough just to get prime virgin resin approved.  The resin has been put through four biotoxicity tests.  We would lose all credibility if we suggested using partially recycled content.  Same goes for surgical drapes which come in brief contact with surgical instruments.

Clean room packaging has a very low parts per million threshold for many chemicals.  Introducing the wild card of recycled content would risk recall of an entire shipment and loss of a customer, not to mention getting charged back for having to repackage.



Food and Water Packaging

PETE is also the only recycled resin approved for prolonged and direct food contact by the FDA.  Same logic applies to food.  Would you feel comfortable with your food being packaged in a container which might contain toxic chemicals ?   Plastics already get enough of a bad rap due to misperceptions and misinformation.
BPA free is an effective greenwash marketing tactic.  Food packaging also gets scrutinized for what is known as leachables and extractables to be sure undesirable flavors are not migrating into food.

cuisinart.jpg images.jpgdreamstime_s_29972885.jpg


Deposit Slip and Coin Packaging


All bags in this category must have a tamper-evident immediate bond.  The three things which prevent tape from sticking are moisture, dirt and grease.  As such, they have a zero tolerance for slip, or erucamides which are commonly added to make bags open easily.  Adding in recycled content which may have trace amounts of slip could prevent the tamper evident tape from sticking.  The center image is fifty pounds of loose coins.  It is very difficult to qualify film made from prime first quality resin.  The bags are put through multiple drop tests.  If the seals fail, the film is always blamed, not the bag maker.  You guessed it - recycled resin would make the bags weaker and possibly keep the tape from sticking.  

There are plenty of other applications, but you get the idea.  The common thread - is it prudent to risk so much just to appease a great idea from the marketing department ?  

If you think so - Mesdames, Messieurs, place your bets !



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Surlyn - sometimes there is no substitute

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Mon, Nov 30, 2015 @ 03:17 PM

Surlyn the most effective, forgiving sealant layer ever invented.  Q.  What makes it so effective ?  Why the search for alternatives?  

A.    Surlyn's properties derive from what is called an ionomer bond.  An ionomer of sodium or zinc is in limbo shared with the orbit of polyethylene molecules.  This delivers unsurpassed tack and toughness and strength.  Surlyn seals through contaminants better than any other resin.  This is very important in the large market for subprimal meat packaging.

A.  part 2

Surlyn has many other applications besides packaging.

Surlyn's  is expensive and difficult to process.  Plastic film plant managers were early adaptors of metallocenes because Surlyn is hydroscopic and corrosive to extruder screws and barrels.  Surlyn has to be dried before extruding.  It is incompatible with other common polyethylene resins.  So blown film managers were early adapters of metallocenes.  

Metallocenes deliver almost the same hot tack characteristics without the aggravation.  Metallocenes are plug and play.  No drying, no corrosion and lower cost.


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EPR Extended Producer Responsibility - You will pay, not producers

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Wed, Nov 18, 2015 @ 06:46 PM

Extended Producer Responsibility ( EPR ) and product stewardship are ideas which are gaining traction globally.  Vilifying corporations may be satisfying to NGO's but the expense of recovery will be passed along to the consumer.  



The logic is that a corporation must be responsible for the entire life cycle of a product all the way to final disposal at end-of-life ( Germany holds the manufacturer legally responsible for the entire life cycle of the product under what is called "comprehensive outcome" ).  This would include re-use, take back and/or recycling. Problem: this costs money which is not presently included in the cost of the item.  Now the consumer pays for only the cost of the item hopefully produced with a small profit and quite possibly at loss. There is simply not enough profit built in to absorb these additional costs.  Packaging does not have a secondary use and cannot be repurposed.  

Container deposit legislation shows the consumer that recycling and recovery costs are extra.

The cost of disposing of toxins is often included in the sale price of some items.  Extending this principle to inert, non-toxic plastics is a bit of a stretch.  Just my opinion.  Container deposit legislation shows the consumer that recycling costs more than the container by itself.

Follwing the logic, the plastic processors are responsible for the behavior of the consumer who chooses to litter instead of recycling.  2 out of 3 containers made from #1 PET, the most recyclable of all polymers, end up as litter or landfill despite the best efforts of large corporations to encourage recycling.

Crafting EPR legislation might get complicated.  How would the cost be allocated ?  How much should the resin manufacturer be responsible for and how much for the processor ?  So-called "triple bottom line" concepts such as environmental full cost accounting ( EFCR ) and true cost accounting ( TCA ) attempt to capture the costs of the entire life cycle. They are open-ended and subjective at best.


If the blame for plastic waste gets shifted to us plastic straw men, reality is the consumer will ultimately pay. Just as corporations pass along the costs of taxes, the plastic industry will pass these costs along.  There are parallels to what is about to happen with electricity costs.  Consumers are going to pay for the higher costs of power generated by non-coal fired plants as dictated by the EPA.


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Visqueen  Construction Film

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Tue, Nov 17, 2015 @ 06:50 PM

Visqueen is another word for construction and agriculture, or "C & A" film.  Visqueen, like "Frigidaire" and "Kleenex" is an example of what linguists call a secondary meaning or what happens when a brand becomes so commonplace that it is substituted for the original meaning.



Click here for a history.

Visqueen is used for non-critical applications not just on construction sites and farms.  It is the lowest end of the blown polyethylene film market. Any PE resin which can be extruded into blown film will do.  Cheating on weights and measures is commonplace.  Full gauge and width is an exception and nobody cares.

Visqueen is often used to make makeshift greenhouses, but it will not last long due to degradation from UV rays.

It is commonly sold in 100 foot lengths in widths from 10 feet and wider in natural and black.


We get lots of inquiries for Visqueen because it is polyethylene film.  We don't make it.  We're set up for large
"mill" rolls.  If you are looking for Visqueen / C & A film, here are links to some US manufacturers:

Did you know ?

The wonderful folks at the Ethyl Corporation who brought you leaded gasoline have never been sued for contaminating the ground with lead 

To create large pond liners, you have to splice big sheets of Visqueen film together.  In the olden days, they used to roll up dynamite fuses in the film and light it to make a seal.

The largest blown film line in North America is located at Poly America in Grand Prairie, TX.  Although Poly America's roots are in C & A film, their mainstay is private label trash bags.

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Prime vs. Off Grade Plastic Resins

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Fri, Oct 16, 2015 @ 04:48 PM

Plastic resins are made by major petrochemical companies.  The choicest cuts are sold by their direct sales force or through their "prime" distributors.  So who sells the near miss or transitional resins which are not exactly ready for prime time ?

Starting wiith definitions is difficult because there are no written industry standard definitions of most terms pertaining to resins in this realm.  H L Mencken defined conscience as "that little voice that says somebody somewhere might be watching."  There is no controlling legal authority which oversees the distribution of off grade resins.  Caveat emptor.

A "major" is short for a major petrochemical company which manufactures plastic resin.  A "broker" is an entity which takes title to the resin which the major deems to be not "prime" resin which falls within the target criteria for the pick of the litter.  The majors sell prime through their direct sales force and prime distributors.

A data sheet lists certain key properties which define the characteristics of a resin. The first - melt index or melt flow - describes viscosity.  This tells the processor the most about how the material will behave and how it will affect the outcome of the part or material.  There are other criteria but going into depth would be too inside baseball and geeky.  

Each of these criteria has a target and acceptable range for what is considered to be "prime".  These are not rigid and fixed.  Rather, they are at the discretion of the product manager at the resin producer.  The parameters change depending on the available supply.  When resin is plentiful, the parameters tend to tighten up.  When resin is "tight", they widen.  It's all a function of what the product managers believe they can get away with.

When a product manager gets a report of fresh lots, she decides which ones are prime and which are considered "off grade" or "near prime".  The prime material gets "certs" and is sold through their direct sales force.  What falls outside the parameters is called "off grade" or euphemistically "near prime", "pencil prime" or "excess prime".  Other lots are called "transitional" which means resin made transitioning from one grade to another. 

Off grade, or OG for short, is sold through "brokers ".  By selling to a third party, the origin is obfuscated. Brokers  are supposed to be discreet and sell off grade to customers who are not direct customers of the same majors and preferably into a different application than originally intended ( It gets interesting when brokered resin finds it's way to prime customers ).   A business model which relies on somebody's mistakes at first sounds like a scary business model.  When resin is "tight" or when the majors are trying to raise prices, the brokers don't have much to sell.  The truth is there will always be material available which is rejected by processors.  We reject several railcars annually produced by ISO 9000 certified major resin companies.  

The most ethical and truthful brokers graduate to become what is known as "prime" distributors.  They distribute prime to smaller processors not called on by the major's direct sales force.  Fun fact: there are no prerequisites to becoming a resin broker.  

Many brokers misrepresent material while others are ethical and disclose fully the good, bad and ugly about specfic lots.  Processors operating on razor thin margins are tempted to save money with resin that's "not exactly" and brokers are tempted to misrepresent to move their inventory. They hope the processor won't know the difference.  Problem: the processor lives with the material and does know when the raw material is not as advertised.  Here is an example: .  
The ramifications go beyond the relationship between the processor and the resin producer.  The finished properties of the plastic film or plastic part within a lot or lot-to-lot are affected with variability of raw material.  FDA approval is meaningless.  Just change a few words in a word document and the broker transforms off grade into FDA approved plastic resin.  It's legal and goes on every day.
So how can you use this information ?  When doing the due diligence on a supplier, ask them preferably in person if the resin they use is "prime".  Don't be shy.  Ask to see FDA letters and invoices ( for the resin they use to make your product along with "track and trace" records ) with the price of the resin blocked out. If the letterhead is not from a major or authorized prime distributor, it's circumspect.  There is an exception.  Some brokers distribute "generic prime" which has been tested and sometimes blended to fall within specific ranges.
For non-critical parts, a generic prime will suffice.
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Odor and Taste / Leachables and Extractables in Plastics

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Thu, Sep 10, 2015 @ 06:47 PM



Leachables & extractables / odor & taste transfer in packaging have been a perennial source of controversy and product rejections.  Nature's penchant for equilibrium results in migration of substances from plastic packaging into the product.

If glass was a new invention, it would be difficult to get FDA approval due to the elements which leach from it.  It's cliche but true - anything in quantity is poison.

The ramifications of leaching and taste transfer can range from annoying and inocuous to toxic.  The metallic taste in tap water resuls from rusting ductile iron pipe.  A faint plastic taste will eventually show up in old bottled water.  Harmless but annoying.  There is no telling what contaminants can enter the recycling stream in post-consumer reprocessed plastic.  For this reason, reprocessed plastic is not an option for food or pharmaceutical packaging.  There is one exception - polyethylene terephthalate ( PET #1 ) which is re-polymerized vis-a-vis reprocessed, 

Commodity plastics such as polyethylene ( PE ), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene ( PS ) are popular choices for food grade packaging because they are so inert.  For reasons still unknown, some polymers transfer taste to specific products.  For example, anyone who has made institutional milk bags knows there is zero tolerance for EVA.  The bouquet of EVA ( best described as apple vinegar ) transfers to milk.  

The subjective zone often results in vicious disputes.  Years ago, a major manufacturer of cereal detected an oxidized odor in the film yet there was no transfer to the product and there were no consumer complaints.  The film supplier had to make sandwiches out of the returned film because the cereal manufacturer refused to pay the invoice.

After 40 years and millions of pounds of ice bag film, we no longer make film for ice bags due to subjective, specious odor and taste complaints. 

Of course, very real leaching can ruin entire lot of product by the presence of only trace amounts.  Many a lot of circuit boards has been ruined by a few hundred parts per million of slip or silicone. Clean room packaging has zero tolerance for slip and silicone.

The threshold of parts per million has very serious legal implications, mainly about compliance with regulations. California prop 65 is not going away.  The scope is expanding indefinitely.  

Extractables encompass everything from the monomer itself to residual catalysts and additives.  So let's break it down:

monomers  Plastic is made from simple hydrocarbons.  With the exception of PVC, these feedstocks have been shown to be inert and harmless.  Old fashioned HDPE is still a popular choice for distilled water.

catalysts are necessary to facilitate a reaction to create the polymer chains.  The catalyst is either transformed or used up.  Remember the hysteria over BPA ?  Turns out it might have been overblown.  
Like it or not, the catalyst BPA is here to stay.  If BPA is an indisputable carcinogen, we should discontinue the use of ubiquitous 5 gallon polycarbonate carboys today.

Additives is a big subcategory encompassing antioxidants, stabilizers, antiblock, slip and pigments.   Additives each have a specific job to do.  Without antioxidants, plastics would have an odor like the smoke from a candle which was just extinguished.  Consumers would return any food packaged in an "antioxidant free" package.  Most resin antioxidants are tocopherols commonly known as vitamin E.  Only PVC has phthalates for stabilization.  

Antiblock is diatomaceous earth.  It is so inert it is used to encapsulate nitroglycerin to make dynamite.

Slip is used to make plastic slippery as the name implies.  Most slip additives anymore are pure enough that they can be Kosher certified.  

Most US made pigments are HMF, or "heavy metal free" if the end use is food packaging or anything medical.   The yellow does not contain lead and the orange no longer contains molybdenum. But most consumers prefer to eagerly expose themselves daily to dermal exposure to levels of lead which are in direct violation of CA prop 65.  

Quantifying leachables and extractables is done according to ASTM WK43975.  The extraction test is done in two solvents.  The extractables must fall below specific threshold amounts to be considered FDA approved.  

Of course, what is difficult to capture is goodwil and good faith.  If somebody is looking for an excuse to not pay their bill, odor and taste is a handy excuse.  As many injection molders found out ( some were put out of business ), the test method of CA prop 65 was modified to obtain the desired lead threshold results.  Whether or not the thresholds posed a realistic health hazard was irrelevant.  

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What is shrink film ?

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Thu, Jun 19, 2014 @ 05:50 PM

Plastic shrink wrap is thermoplastic extruded and oriented so that when exposed to heat, it retracts and tries to return to it's form prior to being oriented.

There are many varieties of shrink wrap films.  They range from clear, thin shrink films for retail packaging to thick, heavy duty industrial shrink wrap.

High end light duty shrink films are generically known as " olefin " films.   Olefins literally mean the lighter molecular weight parts of a barrel of crude oil ( naptha ).   How this misnomer became to applied to shrink films is anybody's guess.  Most commonly, PVC or polypropylene is blown into a bubble, reheated and blown up again, hence the slang " double bubble " label for these films. is an example.

This is the poor man's version of Clysar pioneered by DuPont.  It is a multilayer film which is not only reoriented, but irradiated as well.  The molecules are in a very "excitable" state, making them very sensitive to heat.  These shrink films are also known as " low temperature shrink" in the meat industry.  They respond well to exposure to a tepid, not even boiling, water.



The verbal shorthand for the thickness of olefin films is referred to as " ______ gauge ".  All you have to remember is that every mil = 100.  If you hear " 60 guage" it means 6 / 10 of a mil.

Polyethylene films with the exception of printed beverage films, are more like workhorses and not as glamorous.  In terms of thickness, they pick up where olefins leave off.  They are not as clear as olefins.  The shrink ratios, or amount of shrink in the machine direction ( MD )  and transverse ( TD ) directions cannot be manipulated.  Practically speaking, about 20% TD shrink is the best one can hope for.  MD shrink is stuck at about 65%.

Watch this video to learn how to test heat shrink plastic film ratios in both MD and TD:

Because of the high amount of TD orientation, olefin shrink films have "balanced" shrink in both the MD and TD.

Industrial shrink bundling film is for unitizing cans, bottles and bags.  It's natural habitat is ubiquitous in supermarkets in the early morning when shelves get stocked. 

Plain PE shrink film is the dumping ground of polyethylene film.  It is a convenient place to blend in scrap and rip off customers who do not know or care how to check on weights and measures. Learn how to keep your PE film supplier honest about weights and measures by watching this video:

The low per pound or roll price looks good in the office and results in inconsistent performance in the plant.

Here's a link to what most PE film extruders and distributors don't want you to know:

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Topics: shrink bundling film, shrink film, shrink film packaging, polythene shrink film, plastic shrink wrap, what is shrink film, industrial shrink wrap

What Plastic does not contain is most important

Posted by Joel Longstreth on Tue, Apr 29, 2014 @ 05:02 PM

The metastasizing list of chemicals we must certify that our plastic does not contain is growing.  To say it's absurd is an understatement.  Where does it end ?

Back in the 60' and 70's, it was commonplace to get orders for FDA repro ( reprocessed ).   Flash forward to last week - before we could participate in an RFQ, we had to certifiy that our film complied with ROHS, CPSIA (consumer product safety improvement act of 2008 ), CA prop 65, TPCH toxics in packaging clearing house,  as well as BHT, BPA and latex free.  

Wait - there's more !   We had to certify to a bread bag maker that our films are gluten free.  After 43 years.


It's hard to square this concern about purity when there is apathy about dermal contact with lead if the price is right  Every day, thousands of feet of yellow barricade tape containing 1% lead is handled on fingertips and disposed on the ground in California.

FDA approval is meaningless anymore  

Our Kosher approval letter ( an annual process ) and biotoxicity tests still aren't enough assurance in many cases.

I didn't know how to deal with this conundrum until inspiration struck at the health food aisle.  We should take a page out of the greenwasher's and health food marketer's playbooks.  Just do what you always have done and say it's green and healthy.  Shazam !

There are so many positives about what our plastic does not contain that it's hard to decide where to begin.
contains no yeast, dairy, egg, soy wheat, sugar, fructose, starch.  Cruelty free, cholesterol free, no trans fat, no MSG, BPA free, no BHT, gluten free, no trees or plants cut down ( vegan,right ? ), no GMO ingredients, no lead, no cadmium, 

What about free range cage free ?  The plants and dinosaurs which became our natural gas feedstocks were not raised in cages.

Note to self:  check into getting non GMO project verified.


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Topics: plastic additives

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